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Kagame Speaks Out On Kabila
by Charles Onyango-Obbo
December 10, 2012

Rwanda`s President Paul Kagame arrives to attend the 14th Summit of East African Community Heads of State at the Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC) in Nairobi November 30, 2012. REUTERS/Noor Khamis

Dec 10, 2012 (The Independent/All Africa Global Media) -- Rwandan president explains why, to him, the M23, the DRC government, and the international community, are all ideologically bankrupt

So what does Rwanda`s President Paul Kagame really think about accusations (which he denies) that he, or at least some key figures in the Rwandan government and military, are the patrons of the Democratic Republic of Congo rebel group M23 that recently captured and then vacated the eastern city of Goma?

President Kagame expressed his views in a speech at the launch of The Judicial Year (of all things!) in Parliament on October 4, 2012.

Below are excerpts. It is a worthy read:

“We are here for two reasons:

The first is to witness the swearing-in ceremony of Hon. Mukakarangwa Clothilde, Madam Ombudsman, Cyanzayire Aloysia, and the Army Chief of Staff, Land Forces, Maj. Gen. Frank Kamanzi.

We are also here to launch the 2012-2013 Judicial Year. This is an opportunity to present to Rwandans the new plans for the judicial year.

There is no doubt that the Judiciary in Rwanda has greatly improved. Many Rwandans have trust in their Judiciary and so does the international community. The international community has recognised this progress and this is why there is now good collaboration in transferring (genocide) cases to be tried in Rwanda.

Although our judiciary has generally improved significantly, we still have challenges that we cannot control - those originating from the external justice. All our efforts have not stopped some foreign jurisdictions from misinterpreting us, especially when it comes to building our countries and our continent. In fact, this applies to developing countries in general.

As far as Africa is concerned or Rwanda in particular, it`s not possible to tell whether what is applied is justice or politics - you cannot easily see the dividing line.

International justice, just like so many other things we have seen in the recent past, is used to define and determine how Africans should live their lives.

In English, there is the saying about a carrot and a stick. Sometimes they give you a carrot but then later this carrot becomes a stick which they use to beat you up.

When international justice is applied to us, there is no carrot and stick. There is only stick; a political stick which they use to lead Africans in the direction of their choosing. One day they use international justice to lead you where they want, but another day they use aid.

They call it international justice, but there are no clear guidelines. This international justice is not used where there is injustice. Instead, they use it for their political interests.

Colonialist blackmail:

Let me start with our neighbours in D.R. Congo. This region used to be called Congo-Belge-and-Ruanda-Urundi as if it was one country, remember. Some people still think it is still the same - it is not. The Rwanda of today is totally different from the Rwanda of Ruanda-Urundi-and-Congo-Belge.

Congolese victims of brutal Belgian rule: Part of DR Congo`s crisis today, has its roots in its unhappy colonial past.

Those who caused the current problems in Congo know themselves. They caused these problems in the past centuries. Now, strangely, they want Rwanda to be accountable for the existence of Rwandaphones in Congo. Those who took Rwandophones to the Congo should be the ones accountable for these problems. These Rwandaphones are persecuted every day. Yet the people who give us lessons about human rights keep quiet and condone what goes on. And they turn around and blame Rwanda for the problems of the Congo. They should bear responsibility for the problems.

The law of the jungle says: `You break it, you own it.` But for them, it`s the other way round: `I will break it and make you own it.` We are not going to own it. Even with these threats every day, threats of aid cuts, threats of whatever list you have, you are just dead wrong. We Rwandans are better off standing up to this boorish attitude. The attitude of the bullies must be challenged. That is what some of us live for. We are better off that way. We know that if we don`t, we will be terribly worse off.

Rwandans - if you don`t stand up for your dignity, you accept to be beaten with that stick I talked about earlier. When you accept to be bullied, you are worse off than rejecting abuse and fighting it. When you fight, you can live your own way, and get along with what you have. This is where our interest lies, not kneeling down for people who in the end will persecute us. When I see what Rwanda has gone through in the recent past, I look for the real justification for it and can`t find it. I hope some of you can find the reason for it and let us know so that we can get out of this. Rwandans need to question why the whole world keeps mentioning Rwanda when they are talking about problems in the D.R. Congo.

The other day I heard on the radio people saying: “You know, if Kagame stood up and said he is condemning this group, the donors could unfreeze the aid.” Really?

So, is that what they want? Kagame to denounce so and so, so that they can release the aid that Rwandans deserve? If I am to do it, I would first denounce those that caused the M23 to exist in first place. I would denounce the [Kinshasa] government that does not respect or work for its own citizens. I would denounce the international community that seems blind to what is happening, before I denounce anybody else. To me, M23, the Government of Congo, the international community, are all ideologically bankrupt because they cannot properly define a simple problem that they see. They keep running in circles. For over a decade, they`ve been running around and keep blaming Rwanda for the problems of the Congo. Why don`t they have courage to blame themselves and take part of the responsibility before anybody else will take the responsibility? What is this blackmail about?

Punishing disobedience:

Aid? There is no country in this world that receives aid and accounts for it better than Rwanda. There is none. So, I am not sure if these people who give us aid want us to develop. They give us aid and expect us to remain beggars. They give you aid so that you forever glorify them and depend on them. They keep using it as a tool of control and management.

Our new Rwanda must be different. And I will not stop telling my fellow brothers and sisters, Africans, to just wake up and know that wherever this happens, some of them invited it and are not ready to stand up to the challenge. They must get up and be ready to stand up to this challenge. They are better off that way and there is no alternative. Africans must refuse to be treated as nobodies.

These powerful countries create a court for Africans and call it “international”, when it is only for Africans. And it`s not necessarily for those who have done wrong. It`s for those who have disobeyed. They pretend and tell us that they are going to punish people who are involved in the recruitment of child soldiers but they don`t pursue those who kill children. There are people who kill, who rape, who do everything but these powerful countries just keep quiet about them. Is that how Africans should be? Is it what they want them to be?

So, it becomes a tool of control, of management. If you are killing your own people, if every day you are inciting people to kill other people, these powers will not show up. They will be quiet because, after all, to them there are some people who deserve to be killed. That`s what we are seeing across in the Congo.

International cover-up:

DR Congo M23 rebels after they captured Goma recently: Are they ideologically bankrupt?

Some of you, members of this house, you probably will have visited those refugees as many others I know have. You follow what goes on in the Congo. One part, actually the main part, where crimes are committed in broad daylight, that`s none of their business. It`s okay because people who are being killed, who are being raped, maybe deserve it. And then they turn to the other part and say everything wrong that has happened in the Congo now has to have people who should be responsible - the so-called M23. People who are raped and killed in Kinshasa, M23 is blamed and Rwanda must condemn it. People killed in Kindu, in Uvira, wherever, M23 is responsible and Rwanda must condemn it. People who raped young girls who are in those refugee camps, it`s M23. Even now in the territory that is occupied by representatives of that international community (the UN peacekeeping force MONUSCO).

It even goes to Geneva, the UN Commissioner for Human Rights who says: “These are the worst criminals in that territory. They are raping......” Well, there is a bigger territory where worse things are happening. If that was happening, it does not cover up what is happening even in the hands of government, does not substitute for what needs to be done about crimes.

So, if I am to condemn; if you ask me to condemn people or to blame them for anything, I know where to start. I can`t be like these people. This law of the Jungle, this persecution of people even at the international level is just unbecoming. It is unbecoming and they start mixing things that are completely unrelated. They say: “Freeze, freeze aid to Rwanda, suspend...” What is the connection? This injustice does not make us compliant, it makes us defiant. I am not one of those who would be made to comply by means of injustice done to my people, to my country. I am one of those who will be openly defiant. On being defiant, count me on that.

You can have your day, you can cause suffering to my people. On that one, they are very good. You can have your day. But to make Rwandans compliant because of that or on that basis will be very, very difficult. I know I am speaking for Rwandans. I know I am speaking for Africans, many of who will not stand and say it. If I am wrong and mistaken; if I am not speaking on behalf of you Rwandans; if I am not speaking on behalf of Africans and you are not of the same view as me, ask me to step down and I will not hesitate to do so right away.

This injustice cannot and should not be tolerated. And these people who created injustices here and who have created injustices for this region and for our neighbours cannot stand there and give me lectures about anything. They cannot. They are free to go and do anything they want. I know they are capable of doing wrong things... On that one they are very good, so they are free.

We are doing our best. We are trying our best to take this country forward, to unite our people, to give them a decent living like those people have. But they think we don`t deserve it. They think we don`t deserve the same development, the same value as they have. Why would anybody accept that?

Why should you Rwandans ever accept it? Why? The only crime we have committed is to be trying our best to be decently making progress. That`s a crime! Let me tell you: No, it cannot happen. It should not happen. It should not be allowed. It should not be accepted. Let us continue to do what we can do. Those insults thrown upon us every day, you ignore them. Don`t even accept to put these unhappy faces on because they will think they have got where they wanted you. Just let us continue doing our best and let us not accept to be provoked. Let us remain balanced. Let us keep mastering our art of getting the most out of the very little we have in our hands. Let us also try and continue to be decent people. Some of these insults and injustices, everything, happen because of mainly two reasons.

Africa`s mistakes:

One reason is that some Africans also continue to make horrible mistakes, and of course, that makes for a good excuse for people to come in and make it worse for you, not any better.

The other reason is our weaknesses in terms of institutions and our own lack of integrity. We fail to focus on how to deal with our problems ourselves or at least to take the lead in resolving our problems. So they go through that. Those are cracks through which they will come in and cause you worse problems.

All these pretexts come about because some people in Africa make mistakes that they shouldn`t make. People who don`t govern their people and represent their interests in the way they should and end up attracting attention and give people loopholes and excuses to come and mess them up. They will use that to say: “you see, this is how Africans are...”

There is also the failure to create institutions, because of the mistakes I mentioned, and end up attracting these people who come with the excuses of helping to solve our problems. Fellow Rwandans, you should not accept to be victims. Never put yourself in a vulnerable position because no one will get you out.

Of course, there are good people out there who understand how things should be, but sometimes we find ourselves getting caught in the crossfire of political wars.

Honestly, some of these things are done to us because people can just do it; they don`t have to have justification, no. First of all they are the law unto themselves. They consider themselves as the law and what they say or want is what should be done. They even influence international justice institutions to do their bidding and this is how international justice ends up being politicised. There is no respect for justice. When you don`t respect the law, why do you expect others to do so?

Looting Congo:

Look at the issue of aid. There have been many agreements on aid, signed in different places; there is Busan, Cotonou; the Abuja treaty, Lagos..... What else? We are not short of places and agreements signed for aid disbursement. But if you ever were deceived that the other party respects you or the agreements, then you are mistaken. They have not even the courtesy to tell you. You just hear on radio that they`ve cut aid or read it in newspapers. No courtesy because they owe you nothing. May be that`s right. They really don`t owe us anything after all, do they?

But why would you deceive people and say we have an agreement and this is how we are going to conduct business, and the other party disowns the agreement as and when they want? They don`t even have to have a good reason, they don`t. That shows how much contempt these people have for us. This shows how much contempt and arrogance they regard us all with. If there was an understanding that they owe us nothing, I would endorse that 100% because it`s true. The problem is that they say they are assisting us but there is lack of consistence.

We are told that they are pursuing their interests but you are left wondering sometimes how we have stood in the way to stop them from pursuing their interests. It is difficult to understand what they really want. We have never questioned or stopped anyone from taking Congo`s wealth because it`s not even our business. However, you will hear the same people turn around and accuse Rwanda of progressing because of Congo`s wealth. How can this happen if the wealth cannot make the Congolese who own the wealth progress? What is saddening is that even the Congolese themselves will join the chorus about Rwanda progressing because of their wealth. Why won`t they use their wealth to develop their country? How can wealth benefit others and not those who possess it?

The only external wealth that I acknowledge to have helped Rwanda progress is the aid that is given to us and taken away as those who give it wish. We are always courteous enough to register our appreciations to those who assist us. However, there are those who give you assistance and want to control and follow you up to show you how you should use the assistance. What culture is this? I think this is too much contempt and arrogance. This cannot happen in a society that values its culture.

People who have power, and have a lot of it for that matter, should also be wise. They should wisely exercise that power. Why do you have power and go tramping on people who are powerless? When the powerful get angry, it`s not justified. But many times the powerless have a lot of justifications to be angry.

The weak, the poor, the powerless have a different potential that they should use correctly to get out of this kind of position we find ourselves in every time. There is another kind of power that we have and should use. The power of being right. The power of being correct. The power of refusing injustice. So, you will keep hearing from me on this. That is why you hired me, Rwandans. I would be happy that some of you or all of you should be thinking about how we continue with this attitude of according ourselves dignity.

Even after me, we should have somebody who continues on the same path. In fact, this should be the qualification for the one who will step in my position. It should be that and nothing else: to fight for Rwandans so as to have what they deserve and that is no less than dignity. Agaciro - the dignity that we have. Only people who can continue to give that dignity to Rwanda are the people who should lead Abanyarwanda!

© 2012 AllAfrica, All Rights Reserved

What Does the M23 Want?
By Melanie Gouby
Newsweek International
December 10, 2012

The rebels in eastern Congo occupied a city. But their ideology is unclear.

Parading up and down Goma`s main street, Col. Vianney Kazarama and his men finally enjoy the moment that they`ve long been hoping for. The crowd cheering at their procession appears just as stunned as the rebels by this quick victory. The battle for Goma barely lasted 24 hours, a crushing defeat for the Congolese Army, which was sent running by a small force of around 2,000 rebels who walked into the city center unscathed on Nov. 20. Goma, the capital of North Kivu in eastern Congo, is quite the wartime booty for these bush fighters—part of a group called the M23—who spent the past six months holed up in a village that lacked a decent bar. “My friend, can you believe how nice this is?” exclaims Kazarama, the rebel spokesperson, entering one of Goma`s best restaurants the next day.

Back in May when the rebellion started, nothing hinted that the M23 would go so far. After defecting from the Congolese Army in April, the rebels were chased by the government forces and cornered in a small enclave at the border with Uganda and Rwanda. “We walked for days, with little water to drink and only cabbage to eat. When we took position on the hills in Runyoni, we were bombed relentlessly and had to live in trenches,” Séraphin Mirindi, an M23 colonel, recalls proudly.

Last week, the M23 agreed to withdraw its troops from Goma, but as of press time their positions hadn`t changed and several members of the rebel group appeared reluctant to leave the city a week after the conquest.

The M23 is a small force of seasoned fighters, issued from a long line of ­Rwandan-backed rebellions that have been partly responsible for the violence shaking eastern Congo since the mid-`90s. “I am a career rebel,” jokes Mirindi, who, like most M23 rebels, was part of the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), an armed group led by the charismatic Laurent Nkunda, which controlled a large swath of the North Kivu province between 2006 and 2008.

Following a peace agreement in 2009, Nkunda was betrayed by his second-in-command, Bosco Ntaganda, and put under house arrest in Kigali, Rwanda. The CNDP troops integrated into the Congolese Army, and officers were given high-ranking positions, including a position of general for Ntaganda, despite a pending arrest warrant by the International Criminal Court in The Hague.

Thanks to those high-ranking positions and the weakness of the Congolese government, Ntaganda and the former CNDP officers were able to maintain a parallel chain of command in eastern Congo for three years. The mafialike network they established gave them access to areas of land rich in mineral resources, and allowed them to run businesses worth millions of dollars a year. With this kind of money, Ntaganda was able to enjoy a comfortable life in Goma, playing tennis and eating in fancy restaurants, while still finding enough time to relax on the farm he owned on lush green hills near the city.

But by the beginning of 2012, this lifestyle was jeopardized by President Joseph Kabila`s decision to redeploy the former CDNP troops in other provinces of Congo, in a bid to reassert his leadership following contested elections. The plan backfired when Ntaganda defected with hundreds of men in tow. He was soon met by Sultani Makenga, the current military leader of the M23. At the time, the rebels claimed the only aim of the movement was to demand from the government the application of the peace agreement signed on March 23, 2009. (The date is the source of the group`s name.)

Unlike the CNDP, which infamously used mass rape as a weapon of war and which employed a strategy consisting more of brute force than diplomatic compromises, the M23 is waging a war of public relations and appearances. The rebel group has a Facebook page and a website featuring pictures of smiling, friendly-looking soldiers. Kazarama, ­eager for media attention, had his personal phone number hand-printed on the first press releases issued by the movement. Ntaganda, given his indictment for war crimes by the ICC, has been a liability for the rebel force keen to keep an impeccable public image, and the M23 denies that it has anything to do with him. “I do not know where he is, but he is certainly not with us,” says Makenga, a half-smile spreading on his face.

Sitting on a campaign chair in the Congolese army military academy that the rebels took over a few months ago, Makenga clearly is not keen to talk too long to a journalist. His answers are curt and often preceded by a mocking laugh. The interview has been granted only because another member of the M23 revealed to Newsweek that Makenga held meetings to prepare the rebellion as early as January and let slip that “important Rwandan people” were backing the armed group. Tall and handsome, but lacking in charisma and eloquence, Makenga would rather stay away from the press. A military man through and through, he was nowhere to be seen for a couple of days following the capture of Goma, preferring to carry on with his men to Sake and Mushaki, two villages the rebels seized after the capital of North Kivu.

In the space of a few months, the rebels` advance has been huge. “Our mission is not to conquer territory, but to demand that our rights are respected,” Kazarama said back in June. At that time, looking worn out and tired, the movement`s military spokesperson was rather humble and hesitant as he spoke on a muddy path. Five months later in Goma, Kazarama is prancing around the town with aplomb, telling anyone who wants to listen that the M23 will go all the way to Kinshasa, some 1,600 kilometers west of Goma, to remove President Kabila from power.

“We believe Kabila was reelected during fraudulent elections,” which were held in November of last year, said Jean-Marie Runiga, the president of the M23`s political branch, at a recent press conference. Ironically, the M23 men, who were still in the Congolese Army at the time, actively participated in fraud during the elections by coercing people into voting for Kabila, undermining somewhat the credibility of their posture against him today. “The M23`s purpose is to defend the economic interests of the armed group`s members and allow them to carry on their economic predation. There is no ideology behind the movement,” said Marc-André Lagrange, senior analyst at the International Crisis Group.

However the M23 is not simply a movement of arrivistes. Behind the rebels, much bigger powers are pulling strings and defending their own interests in the region. A series of United Nations reports published this year have revealed how Rwandan and Ugandan top officials have been leading and supporting the rebellion by providing men and supplies, at the risk of sparking a new regional war. In 1998, rebellions backed by Rwanda and Uganda triggered a conflict that subsequently involved eight countries and killed an estimated 5 million people. Both countries strongly deny having anything to do with the M23, and the rebels themselves accuse U.N. experts of fabricating the evidence in the report.

But at a U.N. base in Goma, a group of half a dozen young Rwandan men who escaped from the M23 in May stand as evidence of Congo`s neighbors` hypocrisy. Recruited in Rwanda and told they were going to join the Rwandan national army, they found themselves in the hills of eastern Congo a few days later, roughly trained and given weapons to fight alongside the rebellion. “I didn`t understand at first. Now I want to go home, my family doesn`t know where I am,” says one of the young men.

The stakes are high for Rwanda, even more so than Uganda, to maintain control over what is happening in the Congo, its chaotic neighbor. Following the Rwandan genocide in 1994, Hutu militiamen responsible for the death of thousands of Tutsis fled into Congo and regrouped, vowing to come back to Rwanda one day to finish the job. Although the fear entertained by Paul Kagame`s regime over a potential génocidaire comeback has legitimate grounds, it has also been exploited by Rwanda as an excuse to interfere in eastern Congo and benefit from the country`s natural resources. The Enough Project, a Washington-based advocacy group, revealed in several reports that minerals such as gold, coltan, and cassiterite were smuggled in vast quantities across the Congo-Rwanda border, thanks to Ntaganda`s criminal network.

Allegations that the M23 is a proxy force for Rwandan dominance in eastern Congo has time and again been rejected by the group, which depicts itself as a revolutionary movement rather than a rebellion, subtly hinting at the Arab Spring.

“We will take Bukavu [the capital of South Kivu] and the population will rise and free itself,” says Stanislas Baleke, a gentle academic who left his house and life in France to join the movement in August. “I learnt the idea of the revolution in France, making your ideas heard on the street. I want to apply this to my country now,” he explains.

Baleke is the minister of tourism and environment in the so-called rebel administration. As the armed group conquered more and more territory, they created a parallel government to administer their fiefdom, with the intention of showing that they are a valid alternative to Kabila`s rule. The organization is complete with a ministry of interior, a ministry of foreign affairs, and a ministry of agriculture, among others. What the ministers actually do, however, remains unclear. Ali Musagara, the minister of youth and education, is a plump man with a jovial smile who likes to display his three phones during meetings. Very much on top of things when it comes to recruiting young people for the M23 army, he remains elusive regarding how the movement will fund schools and sports programs.

Whether their claims to be fighting for the betterment of the population`s living conditions are blatant lies or the expression of a naive idealism that does not take into account the reality of eastern Congo, the M23 political cadre seems to be insensitive to the humanitarian crisis the armed group has triggered. In the space of a few months, more than 300,000 people have been displaced, adding themselves to the already 2 million displaced across the country. Many of them have been displaced several times. As the M23 advances, it is sending people fleeing from one camp to another, leaving everything behind them every time. And it`s an endless struggle for humanitarian organizations, who must start afresh every time in a new location and raise new funds amid a generalized donor fatigue for eastern Congo.

“The challenge for us now is that we have invested in the site of ­Kanyaruchinya”—which was overrun by the rebels as they marched on Goma”and we have to start from zero again in another camp. It takes time and it is expensive, and meanwhile displaced people need help,” says Tariq Riebl, humanitarian coordinator for Oxfam.

As if putting thousands of people out on the roads was not enough, the rebels have also tried to take credit for the good actions of others. Deprived of water and electricity for days as Congolese Army soldiers shot down power lines on their way out of the city, Goma came back to life thanks to the efforts of Emmanuel de Mérode, the director of the Virunga National Park, who obtained a grant from park supporter Howard Buffett to buy generators as a measure to reinstate the city`s electricity and water system. The M23 boasted that they were the ones who fixed the problem.

“I would like to believe that they are better than Kabila, or the rest of our corrupted political class,” said Ernest Mugisho, a 45-year-old father of five. “But I know they are not the solution for my children`s future. They do not have the will nor the capacity to help us. They will leave us nothing. They want privileges they were already given before, they want more, and they will leave us nothing.”

Melanie Gouby is a freelance journalist based in Goma. She contributes to the AP, Le Figaro, and Radio Netherlands Worldwide, among others.

© Copyright 2012 Newsweek Inc. All Rights Reserved.



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