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Somalia`s New Tongue Twisting Names
By Roobdoon Forum

How to Start
Your Own Xubin and Waax Country

By Roobdoon forum

Carrab Lo'aad Caws Looma Tilmaamo
By C/fataax Faamo(RF)
Running as a Nation Watches
Roobdoon Forum
New Beginning
in Muslim World
Islamist Vs Islamist
Hammiga Waliid & Hangoolka UNPOS
Roobdoon Forum
Puntland: A Quisling Scheme
Roobdoon Forum

Silsiladda Taxataran ee Beesha Axmed Harti
By M B Dubbe

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By M B Dubbe







Somalia: Is Federalism the only Remaining National Option?
By Dr. Yusuf O. Al-Azhari
February 18, 2011

Federalism is the only way

Many qualified authentic Somalis could argue on whether Federalism is the right option for our country in this period of deep decomposition, agony and antagonism of our Nation which dearth any system of Governance to be re-institutionalize for the past two decades which deeply depleted National values and the integrity of Somalia as a Nation.

Gazing back on the marathon like Politics that Somalia went through since independence, leaves no other option but to adopt and try a Federal modus; as it is the only remaining political paradigm that has not been assayed by Somalis. To be sincere to ourselves and to the Somali people we should not shun aside factual rueful episodes that our country envisaged in the past fifty years of sovereignty.

At independence Somalia was handed over the Parliamentary model Democracy by its aggrandizer under carefully prepared Constitution which was put to popular referendum and was approved. After nine years of self Democratic Governance the Military took over the country by a coup d`état, imposing a totalitarian imperious system of Governance. Soon after a short period the reigning military regime, introduced the adoption of scientific socialism to be the Political menu of Somalia which was forcefully imposed for twenty one years till its collapse in 1991. The worst contrite that eventually pulverized the close brotherly relationship among the Somalis was the anarchy and warlordism that followed the failed unitary system of Governance. That means in span of thirty years Somalia has gone through Democracy, Dictatorship, Communism and Anarchy which all failed and rather fuelled hostility among the one brotherly Nation; a phenomenon that is considered now, antediluvian model of politics by the Somali Nation.

Subsequently, the short lived petulant Islamic Court which was not politically well scrutinized and was more of religious emotional group sentiments, which seemed to lack deep sense of solid political approach appeared on the horizon whose leaders are disengaged into several antagonistic factions to day. Moreover since the collapse of the State Institution and for the last two decades the parliamentary system is being tried with the assistance of the International Communities and friendly countries which could not be sustained till now.

The blood shade, looting, rape and public mutilation that erupted in Somalia have created a deep sense of lack of confidence and insecurity among the various Clans which necessitates the adoption of a new Political vision that could treat the trauma of the atrocities that occurred among the various Clans; if the country`s unity is to be salvaged and brotherly confidence have to be restored.

We are all aware of the various systems of Governance which has a long history stretching from when human being commenced to form groups and tribes which was the precursor of modern nationalist governments. The Federal system has evolved over time, with legislators correcting the anomalies through trial and errors. Federal system is one of the healthiest political models of modern Governance which is used by people living together in communities; and to sustain themselves, they have to establish a clear political structure that could make vital decisions on matters concerning their community and their daily life as a whole.

Federalism was prompted as a result of power domination by Centralized National Government which restricted any sharing of power and resources to the regions on equitable manner. As a result a Federal power sharing system with a clear definition of the distribution of power and resources between States and the National Central Government, to achieving enhancement of welfare goals for its citizens, while maintaining collective sovereign unity has been initiated.

Federal system is simply, a democratic equitable policy procedure which allows sharing through cooperation and involves the division of power between a central government entity and local State governments. Division of political power between center and states, of a federal democratic nation, bequeath most vital authorities related to National security, stability, major foreign policy and minting of financial notes to the Central Government, with states sharing subsidiary responsibility. Such distribution of powers, rights and duties has to be clearly defined and stipulated in the National Federal Constitution which sets up a Federal system of government; distinctly describing the power equation between Center and States. The apprehension by some that States may function as independent governments should be contained by the Federal Constitution and a Federal court of justice to curtail any such tendencies.

The central Federal Government and States will share legislative, executive and judicial powers each within the constitutional restraint of its allowed capacity limits. But the degree to which States are granted freedom with respect to these above mentioned powers may vary, because the Federal system may be symmetric, with all States granted equal amount of local power under the aegis of the Central Federal Government or asymmetric with some States granted more powers. But all in all the country would remain to be one Nation, with better and clear political synchronization between center and states that would enhance the living standard of the Somali individual which should be the goal.

The jittery sentiment by some about Federalism is not because they perceive it, as being good or bad, but rather the lack of confidence in it, through misperception of what it stands for implicitly or advertently. Others may perceive that such phenomenon may lead to National disintegration and others may lack proper constituencies to form a State or the capacity to administer their Regions and sustain an equal standard of rapid development compatible with other States. For these and may be other reasons they would rather support Somalia to be under the umbrella of a unitary Government where everybody has equal “responsibility, but not equal benefits and rights”. Some others may argue on the disparity of resources which is a fact. But the Federal central Government has to address such inequalities of resources by injecting more development projects into the less fortunate States to lift up their potentiality. Besides, States could establish mutual cooperation between them, so that they could develop immensely together by implementing joint economic projects of all kind. Moreover the Federal Constitution guarantees every Somali National the liberty to reside in any State of his choice even if he/she do not relate to the inhabitants of that constituency.

Federal System provides immense opportunity to a State in administering its Communities functions, just like that of a National Government, but in a lesser scale of a particular community; yet the Federal Central Government posses the prerogative to check and balance State activities to be compatible with the set rules and regulations as enshrined in the National Federal Constitution.

The Federal system would also eventually eliminate extremists as they will not have a State they could hide in and would drastically discourage and curtail the unwarranted desires by many candidates to apply for the post of President as the holder of such post will have limited powers to implement.

Somalia has the chance to day, to fathom the formation of a new system that would bar the creation of tycoon powerful monster Leaders by adopting an exemplary Democratic Federal Constitution that will empower the civil society and the people in general.

Finally, a Federal National system of Government in Somalia after what has happened is inevitable, as it would be impossible to re-implement failed policies of Unitary Central controlled government system. Particularly under the prevailing sensitive situation where the Somali people are decomposed, and “territories and towns has been claimed to belong to certain group which deny others to live with them.” What Somalia needs now is a period of self evaluation in peace and development to recover from its past harrowing period. In this regard the only venue open to them is to pursue a system that will provide security to each group in Federal modus of a self rule States. However despite all these prevailing facts, I do not exclude Somalis to ones again, in the distant future reach the desire, after unfettering the despairing nightmare, to decide that a Parliamentary Unitary system is better for the country as Somalis are considered to belong to the same ethnicity.

The writer is veteran civil servant & career diplomat

Somali faction favours federalism, detests Aidid
by John Nyaga
July 06, 1999

BAIDOA, Somalia, July 6 (AFP) - The leader of the Somali faction which drove the forces of warlord Hussein Mohamed Aidid from the south-central town of Baidoa last month says he favours a federal system of government, but without Aidid.

“People will reconcile when regional governments have been established to form a united front against Aidid,” Hassan Mohamed Nur, the chairman of the Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA), told visiting journalists on Monday.

The RRA dislodged Aidid fighters from Baidoa on June 6 after fighting them since 1995, when Aidid`s father, the late General Mohamed Farah Aidid, seized the town and surrounding villages from local Rahanwein leadership.

“Our challenge is to start the establishment of a regional administration. We are for a federal system,” Nur said.

He said the Digil and Mirifle communities in southern and central Somalia, who are also known as the Rahanwein, plan to form their own local government just like their Darod counterparts in northeastern Somalia, who set up an autonomous region known as Puntland last August.

But Nur said war with Aidid was not over yet because forces of the south Mogadishu warlord still occupy parts of Rahanwein territory.

“Our forces are confronting each other in Balidogle (90 kilometres (55 miles)) southwest of Mogadishu,” said Nur, who is popularly known as Shatigudud (red shirt). “Our main aim is to liberate all Digil and Mirifle areas. All Somalis have equal rights,” he added.

Nur ruled out any reconciliation with Aidid so long as Aidid`s fighters were occupying Rahanwein areas.

“Some people have tried to reconcile us, but Aidid is not ready to reconcile. As long as he occupying our territory we are also not ready to reconcile with him,” Nur said.

The population of Baidoa is jubilant over Aidid`s defeat and chasing of his supporters out of their town, reportedly with the help of Ethiopian troops. The RRA, however, denies that the Ethiopians were involved in the fighting.

Residents say that Aidid`s occupation of Baidoa was characterised by killing sprees, looting, rape and vandalism.

Habiba Abdi, a resident of Doynunay, a village about 13 kilometres (eight miles) east of Baidoa, said that on one day five months ago, 200 of Aidid`s militiamen descended on the hamlet, shot dead 60 people, and torched homes.

“They believed we were RRA supporters,” Abdi said, adding that about 150 families whose huts were burned down now sleep rough under trees and eat wild fruits and leaves to survive.

The gang of marauding gunmen was led by notorious militiaman Farah Barane, said Abdi, 29.

Aden Abdi, another survivor of that attack, showeda healed bullet wound on his back and a swelling above his buttocks where a bullet is still lodged. Another bullet blew off two of his toes.

Aid workers showed reporters a water well allegedly vandalised by Adid`s fighters.

“Since the RRA liberated this area we are happy and secure. During Aidid`s time our property was looted and women were raped,” said Maryan Issak Mad, another Doynunay resident.

© Copyright 1999 Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. All rights reserved.

Puntland leader says federal system only way forward for Somalia
BBC Monitoring Service
June 28, 2000

The Puntland regional administration yesterday issued a statement on the Puntland administration`s views concerning the way forward for the formation of a Somali national government. The statement said the only way possible for the formation of a central government for Somalia in the future would be a federal government which has to be formed after the regional administrations establish their own administrative structures and security prevails in every region.

The statement also termed the Somali reconciliation conference in Djibouti as useless because the conference has deviated from its objective.

Col Abdullahi Yusuf said: “President Ismael Omar Gelleh wants to run the affairs of Somalia as if he is the president of Somalia and has hijacked the proceedings of the conference.” The Puntland regional leader further said that President Gelleh had no right to host a conference of this calibre for the Somalis.

Source: `Xog-Ogaal`, Mogadishu, in Somali 26 Jun 00 p 6

© 2000 The British Broadcasting Corporation [date of publication]. All Rights Reserved.

Constitutional affairs committee “sharply disagree” on federal system
BBC Monitoring Africa
January 23, 2003

One of the six subcommittees in the Somali peace talks in charge of constitutional affairs has sharply disagreed on the issue of federalism. The committee comprising of up to 40 members has submitted two conflicting reports. Each group submitted its report on how they think appropriate to handle the Somali constitutional affairs.

Reports say majority of the 40-member committee strongly opposed the idea of implementing federal system at this time round in Somalia. They proposed that the government which will be set up at the end of reconciliation process should look into the issue of federal system in Somalia.

Reliable sources told us that majority of those in favour of the federal system hail from Puntland Region and former members of Col Shatigadud`s southwestern regional administration of Somalia.

Meanwhile, several Somali politicians who had earlier left the peace talks are expected to return to Eldoret [Kenya] in the coming days.

Source: Qaran, Mogadishu, in Somali 23 Jan 03.

© 2003 The British Broadcasting Corporation [date of publication]. All Rights Reserved.

Faction leaders agree to adopt federalism
BBC Monitoring Africa
July 03, 2003

Somali faction leaders meeting in Nairobi have agreed to establish a federal government.

The leaders who are taking part in the IGAD [Inter-Governmental Authority on Development]-sponsored peace process at Mbagathi said 315 members of parliament will be elected in historic elections expected later this month who would then elect a president.

Addressing a press conference, one of the sectional leaders Farah Muhammad Aydid, said the president would then appoint a prime minister and a cabinet.

The federal government shall expand the existing autonomous regional and district governments into a federal structure.

Women should constitute 12 per cent of parliament, the Somali language, Maay [Somali dialect spoken in some southern regions] and maxaatiri [official Somali dialect] shall be the official language of the transitional federal government of Somalia, while Arabic and English shall be the second official languages.

Source: KBC radio, Nairobi, in English 1300 gmt 3 Jul 03.

© 2003 The British Broadcasting Corporation [date of publication]. All Rights Reserved.

Somaliland opposition leader says federalism “best option” for Somalia
BBC Monitoring Africa
July 14, 2003

The chairman of the Kulmiye party [Somaliland`s main opposition party], Ahmad Muhammad Silaanyo, has described the political stance of the southern Somali leaders as selfish and expansionist, not consistent with the common welfare of the people.

Mr Silaanyo stressed that the faction leaders` main aim in competing for the presidential post was intended at covering up their past deeds.

Commenting on the recently agreed federal system at Mbagathi peace talks, Nairobi, Mr Silaanyo said, “Federalism is the best option for the Somalis, if it can help them achieve a government and an administrative system,” urging the Somali people to strive hard for a nationhood.

He urged Somali leaders to make concessions for themselves and end wrangling over the single [presidential] post, according to the statement.

Source: Mogadishu Times, Mogadishu, in Somali 13 Jul 03.

© 2003 The British Broadcasting Corporation [date of publication]. All Rights Reserved.

Break away Somaliland republic said likely to accept federal system
BBC Monitoring Africa
March 22, 2009

The president of the Puntland Administration, President Farole, has said that it is in the interest of the Somali people that the Federal System of government and the formation of regional administrations that are under the Federal government.

The Puntland president said such a measure would play a big role in boosting reconciliation efforts.

President Farole said the Federal system of government can play an important role in uniting the Somali people and that even Somaliland Administration which was seeking to break away from the rest of Somalia for a long time is now likely to accept the federal system.

President Farole added that Bay and Bakool Regions [in south western Somalia] also shown interest in the Federal System of government for sometimes now.

When asked what his region would do if changes are made over the federal system of government, the president said that his administration will reject any system that is not based on the federalism, adding that the issue will further divide the Somali people.

President Farole also expressed doubts about the willingness of President Shaykh Sharif Shaykh Ahmad`s government to implement a federal system of government in the country.

He said the government led by president Shaykh Sharif Shaykh Ahmad intends to establish a central government which is not in any way based on a federal system.

He said plans to cancel the federal system governance.

President Farole was also asked about the implementation of Shari`ah law in Somalia. He said Somali`s are Muslims and that the Federal constitution is based on the religion [Islam]. He added that if there are any parts of the federal constitution that is not in line with the religion then it will be amended. President Farole however said he did not understand what is meant by the term `the implementation of Shari`ah law` and the intent behind it. He said he will be waiting to see where the issue will end up.

President Farole visited Djibouti and Ethiopia in the last few days.

Source: website in Somali 22 Mar 09

© 2009 The British Broadcasting Corporation. All Rights Reserved.


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